Kiviwama - Indigenous trees for our future


Are you uncomfortable with soil erosion?

Would you be comfortable with environmental, soil and water conservation?




Feel comfortable with KIVIWAMA ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIETY. We will provide you with solutions to al your discomforts.


Choose from our long list of natural and indigenous tree: and seedling for arrangement:


1.                  Ficus sycomorus (F.gnuphalocarpa)

-                     Sycamore - fig

-                     Mkuyu


Ecology: A fig tree widespread all over Africa it is found in all regions of Tanzania near rivers or where the water table is high always left standing when riverrine forest is cut down. It is mentioned in the BIBLE under the name SYCAMORE.

Uses: Firewood, carving, food (fruit) medicine (milky latex) shade, mulch, ornamental, soil conservation, soil improvement beehives, caremonial.


2.                  Milicia excelsa (chlorophora excelsa)

-                     (iroko West Africa) (East Africa)

-                     Mvule, Mrie


Ecology: Very common in wetter lowlands of Tanzania at the cost and in areas around lake Nyasa and Lake Victoria it can grow well with mean annual rainfall as low as 700mm provided it has access to extra water from perennial stream or underground. It is served tree in Tanzania and cannot be felled without licence.

Uses: Firewood, charcoal timber (furniture boats) shade ornamental, mulch.



3.                  Newtonia Buchananii

-                     Newtonia

-                     Mkufi


Ecology: A large spreading tree of lowland and upland and rain forest, riverine and swamp forest in Tanzania is common in the Eastern mountain ranges.

Uses: Firewood timber (canoes, sleepers) fodder (pods, leaves) shade, ornamental. Mulch



4.                  Markhamia Obtusifolia

-                     Golden bean tree

-                     Mtarawanda


Ecology: A tree of the Lake Victoria and the highlands of Tanzania is beautiful with clusters of yellow trumpet shaped flowers. The wood is termite-resistant being used to make furniture, boats and tool handles.

Uses: Firewood, timber (furniture) building poles, tool handles utensils fodder (leaves) medicine (fruit roots) ornamental rope (bark) bird traps (twigs, bark)



5.                  Ficus thonningii

-                     Strangler fig

-                     Mkuu, Mfumu,waridani


Ecology: Among the commonest figs in Tanzania widespread in Africa, often starting as an epiphyte on another tree, the buttressed or mult-stemmed from the growth of arial roots. Widespread in upland forest, open grassland and riverine areas from 1,000-2,500m it always left standing in cropland. Fig roots probably have a stronger suction force to draw in water than other trees.

Uses: Medicine (bark) fodder, mulch shade ornamental fibres glue, live fence, ceremonial.




6.                  Trichilia emetica (T.roka)

-                     Cape mahogany

-                     Mkungwina, mtimaji

Ecology: A widespread and important tree of high forest, often by rivers in Uganda, Ethiopia. Kenya and Tanzania South to Mozambique 0-1,800m. Prefers well-drained rich soil and high ground water. There is a smaller savannah from with corky grey bark.

Uses: Firewood, timber (furniture boats) poles tool handles medicine (leaves bark, roots, oil) fodder, bee forage, shade ornamental, soil conservation, oil soap (seed)



7.                  Croton macrostachyus

-                     Broad leaved croton

-                     Mfurufuru, Mshunduzi


Ecology: A medium sized tree of eastern Africa widespread in areas with high rainfall in forest margins along roadside and in juniperus podocarpus habitats, and the flowers are long sweetly scented spikes popular with bees.

Uses: Firewood, timber, poles tool handles, medicine (sap leaves, soil conservation toots, bark) fodder bee forage mulch, green-leaf manure, ceremonies




8.                  Rauvolfia caffra

-                     Quinine tree

-                     Msesewe, Mwembemwitu


Ecology: Widely distributed in riverine brachystegia woodland, lowland forest dry and wet montane forest of the highlands of eastern and Southern Africa 500-2.100m. It is characteristic feature of areas where is ground water. A well known MEDICINAL tree bark roots contains the ALKALOID reserpine, which used in treatment of HYPERTENSION.

Uses: Firewood, timber, utensils (grain mortars), beehive flavouring (bark for beer) medicine (bark roots) bee forage shade (in coffee ornamental).



9.                  Syzygium guineense

-                     Water bery

-                     Mzambarau Mwitu


Ecology: A large tree with wide distribution in Africa and several subspecies occurring from coastal area to 2,100m requiring rainfall of over 1,00mm a year. It prefers moist soils with high watertable besides rivers but will also grow in open woodland

Uses: Firewood, charcoal, timber (furniture general construction, poles, posts, tool handles carving food (fruit) medicine bark roots leaves) fodder bee forage tannin dye


10.              Cordia africana (C. Abyssinica)

-                     East African cordia

-                     Mringaringa


Ecology: A large forest tree of moist warm areas woodland and bush. It common in pastureland 1,200-2000 particularly in Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions but also grows elsewhere in scattered areas around Tanzania. Tolerates a wide variety of soils.


Uses: Firewood, timber (furniture) roof shingles, beehives utensils (boxes, mortars) medicine (bark roots) fodder (leaves in dry season) bee forage shade (coffee) mulch soil conservation boundary demarcation.



11.       Cordia monoica (C.ovalis)

-                     Sandpaper cordia

-                     Msasa


Ecology: This cordia species grows from Ethiopia to central and southern Africa. It is found in many habitats from wet or riverine forest to woodland and bush. As useful tree to grow in dry area. The wood has been used for fence droppers and for walking sticks.

Uses: Firewood, timber (construction) tool handles, food (fruit) bee forage medicine (leaves) sand paper (leaf).




12.       Bersama obyssinica (ssp abyssinica)

-                     Winged bersama

-                     Mwangwakwao, manguwe,ngweda,ndarao


Ecology: Occurring along banks in wooded river valleys at the edges of evergreen forest and also open woodlands in Tanzania, common in highlands forest margins in Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Usambara and Mbeya. A high altitude tree 2-2,400m

Uses: Firewood, timber carving, utensils (stools water pots, medicine, beehives shade ornamental



13.       Albizia schimperiana

-                     Long podded albizia

-                     Mfuruanje, mruka


Ecology: Its natural range is eastern Africa from Mozambique to the Sudan and Ethiopia in Tanzania. It is widespread except in the west and south it is well known tree in the Usambara Mountain and Kilimanjaro.

Uses: Firewood, charcoal, timber tool handles medicine, bee forage shade, soil conservation, and nitrogen fixation



14.       Trema orrientalis (T.guineensis)

-                     Pigeon wood

-                     Mgendagenda, mwesi


Ecology: A small short-lived tree widely distributed in Asia and Africa from Senegal and the Sudan to the cape in higher rainfall areas 0-2,000m. it is found in riverine forest or forest margins as a pioneer which quickly invades clearings and disturbed soils. Medicine from the leaves is reported to be antidote to poison in general. Both bark and leaves contain saponin, a tannin and sugar and have been used for deforming and as cough medicine.

Uses: Firewood, charcoal, poles fodder (leaves, pods seeds) bee forage, shade ornamental, mulch, nitrogen fixation soil conservation, soil improvement, black dye (bark) brown dye (leaves) oil (seed).



15.       Albizia gummifere

-                     Peacork flower

-                     Mkenge, mduka, mfuruanje


Ecology: Mainly found in East Africa, but also in Ethiopia Zaire Madagascar and West Africa in Tanzania it is found from the coastal hills to Kilimanjaro and Kagera 600-2350m. Despite its name the tree gives only a small amount of gum if the bark is cut.

Uses: Firewood, timber (general purpose) utensils (mortars, water troughs) beehives, medicine (pods roots, bark) fodder (leaves) bee forage soil conservation nitrogen fixation ornamental shade.


16.       Ricinus Communis

-                     Castor-oil plant

-                     Mbono, nyonyo, mbarika


Ecology: A shrubby tree growing over a wide range of altitudes preferring humus-rich and disturbed ground. The plant is drought and terminates resistance. The seed coat and leaves are poisonous to animals and to poultry and even the oil residue can only be used as stock feed specially treated. It can only be used fertilizer however. The seeds yield up to 50% oil, oil that has many industrial uses. The oil is best used as body lotion but it was commonly used as purgative in the western world before better product replaced it.

Uses: Medicine (oil), Oil (seeds) live fence windbreak



17.       Podocarpus falcatus (P.gacilior)

-                     East Africa yellow wood

-                     Podo, msemawe, mvavari


Ecology: Podocarp trees are mainly found in the southern hemisphere. They are conifers more closely related to juniperus than to pines. The fruit technically cones look more like large berries on fat stalk (podocarpus-footed stalk). They are also known as yellow woods P.falcatus is large tree of upland rainforest in restricted range 1,00-2,400m. In Tanzania it occurs on Mt. Kilimanjaro the Usambara and at Mbulu.

Uses: Firewood, timber (furniture, boxes, plywood panels) poles, medicine (bark), shade, ornamental.



18.       Khaya nyasica (K. antotheca)

-                     African mahogany, red mogany

-                     Mkangazi

Ecology: A tall forest tree occurring from Tanzania south to Mozambique at medium to low altitudes in evergreen forest and riverine fringe forest it is locally common in Tanzania as riverine tree in the foothills of mountain ranges it prefers deep fertile soils with subsoil moisture and can with stand seasonal flooding.

Uses: Firewood, timber furniture paneling (boat building) post flooring, medicine (bark) shade ornamental.



19.       Croton megalocarpus

-                     Croton

-                     Mlailai, Mlandee


Ecology: A dominant upper storey tree in some forested areas of East Africa widespread in Mountain areas of Kilimanjaro, Meru, Ngorongoro and Usambara. It can be found in range of semi humid habitats 1,200-2,400m but has been planted at lower altitudes. The seed of this tree has oil content (30%) and high protein content (50%). The oil extract can be a strong.

Uses: Firewood, charcoal, timber, poles, medicine (bark) bee forage, shade, ornamental, mulch life fence boundary markers

20.       Lawsonia inermis (L.alba)

-                     Henna, Zanzibar bark

-                     Mhina, muina, Mkokoa


Ecology: A shrub widely distributed from North to West and Central Africa common at the Tanzania coast along river courses and semi arid areas. The plant producers a volatile oil with a pleasant odour. An orange-red dye extracted from leaves and young shoots is used to dye clothes and lether, to decorate women nails, and skin as well as to colour and condition hair (henna). The dye is released by using critic or tartaric acid tea or lemon juice.

Uses: Medicine, fodder (leaves) dye, perfumes thatching carriers for donkeys, ornamental



21.       Securidaca Longepedunculata

-                     Violet tree

-                     Umfunfu, Utupa


Ecology: This shrub or tree, which grows to 10m, has whitish bark. The flowers are extremely showy in various of pink and have a strong scent to violets. The fruit have a single thin stiff wing. This species is widespread in woodland and at most altitudes and is a desirable garden plant if the initial difficulties of establishment can be overcome. It is often slow growing and does not take kindly to being transplanted. The timber is not used but the bark is useful for fishing nets and snares. The roots have a characteristic smell of wintergreen and are widely used to induce ABORTION. The use however may result in death or at least in damage to healthy.



22.       Mgunga: The English species brevispica means short thorn. This is bush or a climber it climbs on other tress it is found growing along rivers it makes an excellent their poof hedge.


23:       Mgunga: This is another thorny acacia. Tanzania has about 60 different native ocacia species. They are all extremely important because they improve the soil. This is one recognized by its powdery  

24.       Aloe Wildii

-                     Icena

-                     Sale la njofu

This is an aloe. Aloes are succulents e.g. they have juicy leaves. Tanzania has many aloe species which are capable of surviving in fry areas. They have beautiful flowers which attract nectar drinking  birds.


25.       Thorn elm

-                     Thorn elm

-                     Elm

-                     Mkunazi

This is called the thorny elm in English because it is the elm family and is thorny. It occurs naturally to Tanzania. The tough heavy yellow wood is difficult to chop so when deforestation occurs these are often the remaining survivors. The pink fruit are important food for birds and bats.



26.       -Sale


This is the dragon tree that grows on Kilimanjaro. It is planted to mark boundaries or graves. The leaves are fodder and the roots give an extract used to relieve stomachache.


27.       African fig


So called because it is very large when mature. It is also capable of killing other tree by enveloping them. All African figs are very important to the environment e.g. spring water and fruits are such important food to birds bats, baboons, antelopes elephants even human.


28.       Mombo: This is bush or small tree found growing in wet places from Tanzania wherever it occurs it is used as medicine in Tanzania the leaves are used to cure stomach ache and fever.


29.       Boophane


The flowers characteristic two ranked leaves, which appear after flowering has finished, are held like an open fan. The “sphere” is frequently painted and hung up as Christmas decoration. The bulb is highly toxic and generic name means liteoally “ox killer”


30.       Euphorbia ingens

-                     Candelabra tree

-                     Mkorokoro

Euphorbias are typically Africa large succulent tree up to 12m in height with four angles branches euphorbias have poisonous sap causing blister on the skin. If the sap gets in your eye wash it out with water though the sap is poisonous monkeys eat the fruit and porcupines and cane rate eat the roots.



31. Kigelia africana (K. aethiopum)

Eng: Sausage tree.

Ecology: Widespread in Africa, found in wet savannah and long river in arid area, from the Tanzania coast to the highlands and in the Rift Valley, 0-1,850 m.

Uses: Firewood, charcoal, timber (dugout canoes, yokes), poles medicine (fruits, leaves, bark), fodder (flowers, young leaves), bee forage, dye (boiled fruit), local honey beer (fruit).

32. Osyris Lancelata (O. compressa)

Eng: African sandlwood:

Chag: mberegesa;

Swah: msandali.

Bara: getakhuday.

Ecology: An indigenous plant in highland forest and bush.

Uses: Firewood, timber, utensils (pestles), medicine (bark, roots) perfume (wood, roots)

33. Adansonia digitata

Eng: baobab;

Swah: mbuyu

Ecology: The boabab is well - known tree of tropical Africa south of tha Sahara. In Tanzanian it grows from the caost to 1,250 m. It is one of the longest living trees in the world (about 3,000 years) Grows in most well-drained soil, is deep rooted, drought resistant and preefers a high watertable.

Uses: Utensils, fodder (leaves, fruits), food (shoots, fruit), drink (seed pulp), medicine (roots, bark), bee forage, string, rope (bark fibres), gum, resin, dye (roots).

34. Ekebergia capensis (E. rueppeliana)

Eng: ekebergia

Ecology: A semi-deciduous evergreen tree with a spreading crown widely disrtibutes ni a variety of habitats from lowland scrub to highland forest, often a shady meeting place in open grassland, 0-1,500 m. In Tanzania it is common on the northen and western slopes pf Mts. Kilimanjaro and Meru, and also found in Usambara, Iringa and Maisome Island in lake Victoria.

Uses: Firewood, poles, timber (furniture, light construction), tool handles, medicine, fodder (leaves), bee forage, shade, ornamental, soil conservation, windbreak.

35. Spathodea campanulata (S. nilotica)

Eng: African tulip tree, frame of the forest, Nandi flame.

Ecology: A decorative tree common at forest edges and in riverine forests in East, Central and West Africa. In Tanzania it is confined to the north-western disrticts Buha, Kigoma, Biharamulo and Ngara. It does best in deep moist fertile soil in area below 1,800 m. It is drought resisant once established.

Uses: Firewood, charcoal, carving, medicine (bark), bee forage, shade, ornamental, mulch, windbreak.

36. Hyphaene compressa (H. coriacea)

Eng:doum plam.

Swah: mkoche.

Ecology: Widespread in lowland arid Africa, Madagascar, Arabia to India. Common in dry areas a long river courses, and at the coast, 0-1,000 m. It requirea high watertable and hot climate for good growth.

Uses: Firewood, poles, posts, food (fruit), drink (fruit wine from thin skin), soil conervation (sandy areas), shade fribe, baskets, mats (leaves), roofing (leaves), fencing (cut leaf stalks), brushes.

37. Ziziphus mauritiana

Eng: geb

Swah: mkunazi

Ecology: This tree is now widely naturalized in the tropics, including the Mediterranean and Africa. It has a strongly developed root system and does best in areas with a high a watertable. In Tanzania it is a common coastal tree, 0-1,400 m.

Uses: Firewood, charcoal, timber(beds, dhow ribs), poles utensils (bows, arrows) carving, fodder (leaves, fruit), bee forage, shade, soil conservation, resin, gum, windbreak, live fence, trannin, dye.